参考外语角|美国从阿富汗完成撤军,美国防部和 *** 划分在社交媒体“官宣”

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参考新闻网8月31日报道 当地时间8月31日,美国防部在推特上公布了最后一位脱离阿富汗的美军士兵照片,并配文称:“最后一名脱离阿富汗的美国士兵:克里斯·多纳休少将,美军空降军队指挥官,于2021年8月30日登上一架C-17运输机,竣事了美国在喀布尔的义务。”(The last American soldier to leave Afghanistan: Maj. Gen. Chris Donahue, commanding general of the @82ndABNDiv, @18airbornecorps boards an @usairforce C-17 on August 30th, 2021, ending the U.S. mission in Kabul.)

美国防部网站截图。

参考新闻网8月30日报道 Many parents have been in close quarters with their kids for the past year and a half. Now, as students across the country prepare to return to school full time in person, many parents of elementary- and middle-school students are wondering if they should send their kids off with a phone.

“What we know is that there is not a magic age for when to get a child a *** artphone, but by age 11, 53% of kids have their own *** artphone,” said Kelly Mendoza, a vice president at Common Sense Media, a nonprofit group focused on responsible media use. (The figure comes from a 2019 survey the organization conducted of more than 1,600 people between the ages of 8 and 18 in the U.S.) “Sixth grade is a big transition for kids, when they start middle school and start to have more independence,” she said.

Even though middle school is a turning point for many parents in making the leap, Ms. Mendoza said age isn't as important as a child's maturity. She said parents can assess their children's phone readiness by asking themselves the following questions: Do they show a sense of responsibility, such as getting their homework done on time? Are they responsible for their things—do they tend to lose or damage personal items?Do they already keep other devices, such as tablets,charged? Would they be able to resist texting or scrolling in class?

It is also wise to assess whether there are legitimate needs for children to have a *** artphone, such as being able to communicate while taking public transportation, or being reminded to take medication.

Many kids start asking for a phone once their friends have one. The requests can start as early as elementary school, but the peer pressure heats up in middle school, according to digital-media experts and parents.

Understanding your children's motivation can help you decide. Do they just want one because they want to fit in? Are they being excluded from social interactions, such as group texts? Sometimes the pressure can even come from school clubs and sports teams. A coach might require students to check Facebook for sche *** ng updates.

Once you've decided to give your child a phone, the next question is what type. We generally recommend giving your kid a phone that runs on the same operating system as yours.

Deciding on the right phone for your children isn't the final step. Before they power it up for the first time, experts say you should talk to them about your expectations for its use, and the consequences for losing or damaging the phone or for violating the rules.

Ground rules include when and where the phone should be used, where it should charge up at night (hint: probably not in their bedroom), how to treat others on social media and how to report cyberbullying.  

这一年半以来,许多怙恃一直与孩子旦夕相处。现在,天下的学生都准备返校上全天的线下课,许多中小学生的家长思忖着是否该让孩子带着手机上学。

参考新闻网8月30日报道 Any time I get a negative review, I remind myself there are people out there who don't like cheese, so there's no accounting for taste. It honestly helps. Having said that, I no longer read Amazon reviews because I was sick of being compared unfavourably with a five-star set of vacuum cleaner bags.”

“任何时刻获得负面评价,我都提醒自己,有些人就是不喜欢奶酪,以是各有所爱。这样想确实就好受多了。话虽云云,但我再也不读亚马逊上的谈论了,由于我很反感一直比不外一套五星好评的真空吸尘器集尘袋。”(英国《卫报》网站)

——英国小说家、记者和主播伊丽莎白·戴已完成六本著作,她受访时谈到若何看待自己的书在亚马逊上的差评。(张伊宇编译)

参考新闻网8月30日报道 Catfish是“鲶鱼”,但它尚有一个非正式用法也日益常见,那就是“网络骗子”。

关于catfish的这个用法,剑桥词典的注释是:someone who pretends on social media to be someone different, in order to trick or attract other people(在社交媒体上伪装身份来诱骗或吸引他人的人)。朗文词典说的更详细:someone who lies about themselves on the Internet in order to impress people, especially so that someone will start a relationship with them(在互联网上虚拟身份来感动他人、尤其是以生长网恋为目的的人)。看来,catfish就是“网络骗子”,尤其是“网络结交骗子”。

剑桥词典还列出了catfish的动词用法:在社交媒体上伪装身份来诱骗或吸引他人。例如:If a random, attractive person starts talking to you online, you are very likely being catfished(若是不知从哪儿冒出一个魅力四射的人在网上跟你搭讪,那你八成是受骗子盯上了)。

Catfish的引申义听提及源于2010年的一部纪录片Catfish(《鲶鱼》),讲述年轻摄影师Nev在网上结识密歇根州妙龄女子Megan并坠入爱河,他悄悄前往密歇根州,却发现对方是相貌平平的中年家庭妇女Angela。影片名称来自Angela丈夫讲的一个故事:挪威的一些渔民把鲶鱼放进他们捕捉的鳕鱼中一起远程运输,作为鳕鱼的天敌,鲶鱼能使鳕鱼出于求生本能不停游动,从而保持鲜活。他用鲶鱼来比喻自己的妻子——伪装出 *** 迷人的身份,在他人生涯中搅起涟漪。从这部影片的情节出发,人们逐渐最先用catfish来指以虚伪身份在网上诱骗他人的人。

参考新闻网8月30日报道 眼下的拜登 *** 可谓内外交困,不仅由于阿富汗撤军停止日期(Afghan withdrawal deadline)迫近,而撤离行动却陷入泥潭(quagmire),更由于美国海内的新冠疫情因德尔塔变异株(Delta variant)的盛行再次仰面:全美50个州中,现在有43个州的新增病例七日均线在走高。眼看着自己百日新政的最大功效子虚乌有,拜登 *** 迫在眉睫地提前三个月抛出大杀器:从9月20日起开打疫苗增强针(booster shot)。

疫苗增强针并非新事物,脊髓灰质炎疫苗就需要注射四针才气到达终生免疫(immunity for life)。然而,对于一个仍有9300万人有资格打却选择不打疫苗的国家来说,增强针不啻为又一个盘据社会的话题。

美国还在盘据,盟友以色列却已先行一步:由于辉瑞疫苗的效力(efficacy)下降,日增病例快速增添、不愿重新封锁(lockdown)的以色列选择以增强针作为主要抗疫武器,现在已有150万以色列人接种了第三针辉瑞疫苗。

着实世卫组织对增强针是持保注重见的:当穷国还在为第一针疫苗的分配发愁的时刻,蓬勃国家急于打增强针从道德和熏染病学角度来说都是不能取的。从数据来看,未打疫苗的发病率、住院率、重症数均高于打过疫苗的。难怪拜登说新冠疫情已经酿成未打疫苗者的大盛行病(pandemic of the unvaccinated)。(涂颀)

参考新闻网8月30日报道

外文全称:Jacques Rogge

中文译名:雅克·罗格

靠山先容:8月29日,国际奥委会公布新闻称,前国际奥委会主席雅克·罗格去世,享年79岁。雅克·罗格于2001年到2013年任国际奥委会主席,后担任信用主席。他曾是一名矫形外科医生,拥有运动医学学位。他加入过1968年、1972年和1976年三届奥运会风帆竞赛。

参考新闻网8月23日报道 你见过没进货就摆摊的吗?在美国资源市场,现在就有这么干的,而且越来越多。这种方式叫做SPAC,也就是Special Purpose Acquisition Company,直译为特殊目的收购公司。

SPAC是使命怪异的公司,没有主营营业,只有一种资源,那就是钱。以是,投资者往往把这种公司称为“空缺支票公司(blank check company)”,官方的说法叫做“壳公司(shell company)”。这种公司由私募基金或大投资人牵头确立,确立之后立刻在纽约股市上市,唯一目的就是找到一家有生长性的企业,将其收购,把壳公司的股票酿成被收购公司的股票举行生意。

众所周知,企业在股市上市的历程叫做“首次果然募股(Initial Public Offering,IPO)”,要经由庞大、漫长的历程,让市场投资者镇定剖析并准确熟悉到企业股票的价值。SPAC没什么营业,IPO历程自然很简朴,一旦上市,SPAC收购的企业不需要再次IPO,可以自动上市。

由于有SPAC这一层过渡,许多需要迅速融资或者达不到上市要求的企业可以绕过正规IPO历程,实现上市,往往比正常上市时间快了两三倍,几个月内就能成为上市公司。

参考新闻网8月23日报道 As a young girl with a disability, I was a completely different person. I was so shy and scared to let people know that I struggled or needed a bit more help. But seeing the Paralympics and seeing people not trying to hide their disabilities, but show people how they've overcome it.”

“作为一名残疾女孩,我与别人完全差异。我曾经很含羞,畏惧别人知道我有难题,或者需要更多辅助。但我看到,在残奥会上,人们不再试图掩饰自己的残疾,而是向人展示他们是若何战胜它的。”(英国广播公司网站)

——英国游泳运发动贝萨妮·弗思说,残奥会让她“不再对自己的残疾感应含羞”。弗思已是四枚残奥会金牌得主(一枚来自伦敦残奥会,三枚来自里约残奥会),今年她将代表英国加入东京残奥会。

参考新闻网8月23日报道 It's like leaving somebody in the middle of the sea - in the middle of nowhere -and you don't know when somebody will return to pick you up……It's like she is sinking. Almost drowning in the water.”

“这就像把人扔在海上,周围什么都没有,你不知道什么时刻会有人回来接你……她好像正在下沉,就要被淹死了。”(美国天下公共广播电台网站)

——栖身在美国得克萨斯州的34岁阿富汗人可汗曾为驻阿美军事情,但他的妻子还困在喀布尔,他不确定妻子能否拿到美国的“稀奇移民签证”实时撤离。(何娟编译)

参考新闻网8月23日报道 利便面是日本人的发现。报道东京奥运会的美联社记者探访横滨杯面博物馆时发现一种特殊的甜品,利便面味儿的冰淇淋(noodle ice):冰淇淋加上利便面的汤包(powdered soup)和冻干配料(freeze-dried toppings),味道不能形貌(neither here nor there)。

口味有自然缘故原由。小孩儿似乎没有不喜欢糖的,但爱喝啤酒或者吃辣椒的也许不多。听说这是生物的自我珍爱机制,由于自然界中味道怪怪的食物往往有毒。但随着人的社会化,口味也会转变,于是有了后天形成的口味(acquired taste)。

同伴压力(peer pressure)可能是影响后天口味的主要因素。若是你喜欢或者崇敬的人喜欢某种口味,你可能也会喜欢这种口味——明星代言就是例子。另外,多接触(exposure)也可能使你喜欢某些食物。

至于利便面味儿的冰淇淋,美联社的文章说,体现了日本人的朋克摇滚精神(punk rock soul),是开脑洞的象征,标志日本人混搭创新的“本事”。(肖胡)

参考新闻网8月23日报道

Business Is Using Less Carrot and More Stick on Vaccinations

接种疫苗要拾“大棒”弃“胡萝卜”

Drake Bennett 德雷克·贝内特

The belief that vaccination should be a matter of personal choice managed to survive almost a year and a half of the Covid-19 pandemic. For months, employers eager to find a way to get workers and customers back to their businesses saw vaccines as vital, but stopped short of measures that felt coercive. Walmart Inc.'s approach—paying the store workers who make up the bulk of its 1.5 million U.S. employees $75 for a jab—was typical. When the New York-Pre *** yterian Hospital system announced a vaccine requirement for its employees several weeks ago, it triggered demonstrations outside its main campus in upper Manhattan. The signs waved by the protesting workers summed up the delicate dance government officials and employers were attempting: “Vaccination Yes. Mandate No.”

The shift from carrot to stick since then has been abrupt. As the more infectious delta variant has driven a dramatic rise in cases—the vast majority among the tens of millions of American *** s who, despite ample opportunity, remain unvaccinated—a growing number of large employers have announced that they are giving up on moral suasion and inducement. In recent weeks, Google and Facebook have announced that employees returning to their offices must be vaccinated. Walmart mandated vaccination for the mostly white-collar workforce at its corporate headquarters.

Vaccine mandates aren't new. In the U.S., all 50 states have vaccination requirements of some form for infectious diseases such as measles, mumps, and rubella. And past plagues have triggered broader mandates, too.

Of course, there remains a gap between what public officials are constitutionally empowered to do and what they feel politically able to do. While the governments of Italy and France have in recent weeks passed laws making vaccines or weekly Covid tests mandatory for dining inside the restaurants and cafes so central to life in those countries, President Joe Biden has taken a softer approach:publicly touting vaccination, criticizing anti-vaccine politicians, and issuing “attaboys”to companies that have issued their own mandates. Those vaccine mandates his administration has issued cover only employees of the federal government itself.

The closest thing to clarity from the federal government that employers and employees are likely to see in the coming weeks is full Food and Drug Administration approval of the Pfizer, Moderna, and Johnson & Johnson vaccines, all of which have been administered under emergency-use authorizations thus far. That may or may not reassure those employees who remain hesitant about the shots. But it's likely to convince employers that they're on firmer ground compelling them.

是否接种疫苗应该是小我私人选择,这种看法在新冠疫情暴发近一年半后依然存在。几个月来,那些急于找到一种设施让员工返岗、客户回流的雇主虽然以为接种疫苗至关主要,但都没敢接纳带有强制意味的措施。沃尔玛的做法——在其150万美国员工中占多数的门伙计工接种一剂新冠疫苗可获75美元的奖励——就十分典型。几周前,纽约长老会医院系统宣布其员工必须接种新冠疫苗,引发 *** 人群在其位于曼哈顿上城的主院区外群集。员工挥舞的 *** 口号归纳综合了 *** 官员和雇主试图掌握的玄妙分寸:“打疫苗,可以。强制打,不行。”

参考新闻网8月23日报道

外文全称:Nicholas Burns

中文译名:尼古拉斯·伯恩斯

靠山先容:美国白宫8月20日宣布,总统拜登提名尼古拉斯·伯恩斯出任驻华大使。伯恩斯现年65岁,现在是哈佛大学肯尼迪 *** 学院国际关系教授。他是一名资深外交官,此前在美国 *** 从事外交事情27年。

外文全称:Nosiviwe Mapisa-Nqakula

中文译名:诺西维韦·马皮萨-恩卡库拉

靠山先容:南非国民议会8月19日举行议长选举,前国防和退伍武士部长诺西维韦·马皮萨-恩卡库拉当选新一任议长,成为该国1994年竣事种族隔离政策以来的第五位女性议长。马皮萨-恩卡库拉出生于1956年,曾任内政部长、国防和退伍武士部长等职务。

申博声明:该文看法仅代表作者自己,与本平台无关。转载请注明:参考外语角|美国从阿富汗完成撤军,美国防部和 *** 划分在社交媒体“官宣”

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